Use of The Breath Company Products in Bad Breath Patients (GCF and Halimeter Values, Effects of Oxygenized Saliva)
By Drs. G. Acikgoz, I. Devrim, M. Aldikacti, A. Kayipmaz, G. Keles - Professors of Periodontology at The Ondokuz Mayis University Dental School, Department of Periodontology - Samsun, Turkey
This independent study was presented abt the 4th International Symposium on Oral Malodor, held at The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
There are several etiological roles which play a role in the ethiopathogenesis of bad breath. However, the major role is the bacterial production of hydrogen sulphide. These anaerobic bacteria live in areas where oxygen cannot reach them, including the back of the throat and tongue, interproximal areas of the teeth, periodontal pockets and enlarged tonsilla. A benefit to those who suffer with bad breath would be the use of an oxygenating agent which would eliminate the hydrogen sulphide and the anaerobic bacteria.
Twenty-five subjects suffering with bad breath were treated with The Breath Company brand stabilized chlorine dioxide mouthwash, toothpaste, and spray. Their progress was monitored by using 3 scientifically reproducible methods:
Flame Gas Chromatography, used to measure the production of Volatile Sulphur Compounds in laboratories.
The Interscan Halimeter, which is used by some dentists to monitor the production of sulphides in their dental offices.
Periotron 8000, which measures the concentration of anaerobic bacteria and sulphides in collected saliva.
Results showed the following:
The Flame Gas Chromatography readings of Volatile Sulphur Compounds decreased significantly following use of the products.
A statistically significant decrease in Halimeter readings, showing that the oxygenating effect of The Breath Company reduced volatile sulfur compounds.
Readings on the Periotron 8000 with regards to patients saliva showed that The Breath Company had a beneficial effect.
Notes: This study was translated from Turkish so that it could be presented at the 4th International Symposium on Oral Malodor at the University of California at Los Angeles.
Reduction of Oral Malodour by a Chlorine Dioxide Containing Mouthrinse; Likely Mechanisms of Action in Vivo
By H. Chang, J. Greenman, R. Allaker, and E. Lynch
Department of of Conservative Dentistry, Saint Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, QMW, University of London and the University of West England, Bristol, UK
The change in volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) levels intraorally as recorded by a Halimeter was studied as a potential method to investigate the mode of action and efficacy of a chlorine dioxide (ClO2) mouthwash used as an anti-halitosis agent. The Halimeter was used to monitor the levels of H2S (hydrogen sulfide) every 2 minutes following a 0.1% (w/v) cysteine mouthrinse, which was held in the mouth for one minute prior to expectoration.
The results from an initial study with three participants showed that the VSC response reached a maximum recorded level at either 4 or 6 minutes and returned to around baseline levels after approximately 30 to 40 minutes.
Furthermore, a second cysteine mouthrinse applied within 1 to 2 hours following the first rinse gave a trend towards a larger H2S response, indicating inducibility of VSC production. This experiment involved application of a control rinse (water) on day 1 and a chlorine dioxide rinse (test) on day 2, 75 minutes following a first recorded cysteine-H2S response and one hour prior to a second recorded cysteine-H2S response, on 20 participants.
The results showed that the second cysteine-H2S response was significantly reduced (43% reduction; p< 0.05) following the chlorine dioxide rinse test agent, compared to the water control. These results indicate that the mechanism of action of the chlorine dioxide reduction of VSC production is unlikely to be primarily mediated by oxidation of substrate or VSC product.
Microbiological sampling of the tongue flora following cysteine, water, and chlorine dioxide mouthrinses showed no significant differences in the recovery of aerobic, facultative anaerobic, or strict anaerobic tongue species, suggesting that one of the main mechanisms of action of chlorine dioxide may be irreversible inhibition of the major cysteine to H2S enzyme, cysteine desulfhydrase.